Soccer World Cup in Qatar: kick-off this Sunday, a glance again at twelve years of labor and controversy

This Sunday, November 20, the Soccer World Cup opens in Qatar amid controversy.

A World Cup below the signal of controversy: for the reason that designation of Qatar as host nation in 2010, the controversies across the 2022 World Cup have adopted each other, amplifying because the match approaches, the kick-off of which is scheduled for this Sunday November 20.

1. 2010, the shock award

Since its shock attribution on December 2, 2010 in Zurich, the Qatari World Cup has triggered plenty of ink to movement. Within the wake of the announcement of Fifa, which most well-liked Qatar to the US within the 4th spherical of voting, Barack Obama, then American president, exclaims: “It is a unhealthy determination.” On December 3, the German authorities expressed its astonishment: “We are able to qualify the selection that Fifa has made as partially shocking”, mentioned its spokesman Steffen Seibert. Conversely, Brazilian President Lula congratulates Fifa for its “knowledge”. On the time, solely one of many eight stadiums deliberate for the World Cup existed and the arrival of greater than 1,000,000 supporters raised questions concerning the reception capability, specifically inns, of the small emirate.

2. 2012, suspicions of corruption

In August 2012, the Investigative Chamber of the FIFA Ethics Committee initiated an investigation into the awarding of the 2018 Worlds to Russia and the 2022 Worlds to Qatar, led by former US prosecutor Michael Garcia. Hans-Joachim Eckert, president of the adjudicatory chamber of the FIFA ethics committee, notes within the Garcia report “questionable habits” however nothing to query the attribution course of. Garcia denounces an “faulty and incomplete” presentation of his investigation and proclaims that he’s interesting.

On June 27, 2017, the Garcia report, with out its foremost instigator, was revealed by Fifa, after leaks within the press. He notes a sequence of doubtless suspicious monetary transactions however not sufficient proof to withdraw the group of the World Cup from Qatar. In France, justice has been investigating since 2019 for “lively and passive corruption” on a lunch held on November 23, 2010 between Nicolas Sarkozy, then President of the Republic, two senior Qatari leaders and Michel Platini, on the time boss of UEFA. , which introduced the 4 European voices to the emirate.

On October 13, 2022, a joint investigation by France Télévisions and Radio France revealed a be aware from the diplomatic cell of the Élysée, in view of this lunch, planning to handle, along with the World Cup, the topics “fight plane” and ” world missile defence”. The previous secretary normal of the Élysée Claude Guéant confirms “discussions with Qatar” on the sale of Rafale plane, lastly concluded in 2015, however dismisses any hyperlink with the awarding of the World Cup.

3. 2014 calendar change

On January 8, 2014, Jérôme Valcke, then Secretary Normal of Fifa, declared that the World Cup wouldn’t happen “not in June-July” however “between November 15 and January 15 on the newest”, in an interview broadcast by the France Data and France Inter radio stations. That is the affirmation of an possibility already put ahead by Sepp Blatter, then president of Fifa, confronted with “issues associated to warmth”.

In the course of summer season in Qatar, temperatures can soar as much as 50 levels Celsius. The chief committee of Fifa decides on September 25, 2015 in favor of a contest which can happen from November 21 to December 18, 2022. Lastly, the opening match is introduced ahead by someday, November 20, to place in Qatar to open the ball. For the primary time, a soccer World Cup is organized on the finish of the calendar 12 months, interrupting the European membership championships, which makes cringe among the many latter, employers of soccer stars.

4. 2014, human rights

Many voices criticize the small gasoline emirate about human rights, beginning with the Worldwide Commerce Union Confederation, creator in 2014 of an uncompromising report on the therapy of migrant employees. The overall of 6,500 useless put ahead by the British newspaper The Guardian in early 2021 is questionable. It corresponds to all of the deaths recorded within the inhabitants coming from South Asia between 2010 and 2020, all causes mixed.

Formally, there have been three deaths within the eight World Cup stadiums. A report by the Worldwide Labor Group (ILO), which has an workplace in Doha, concluded that fifty employees died in office accidents in 2020 and one other 500 have been critically injured. Nonetheless, the ILO notes shortcomings within the system of investigation and registration of deaths and signifies that their quantity might be larger. Below stress from NGOs, sponsors and a number of other federations asking for a compensation fund, Fifa mentioned on October 17 “to dialogue” on “initiatives” in favor of employees on the World Cup websites. The reception of members of the LGBT + group can even be scrutinized on this conservative Muslim state the place the laws criminalizes sexual relations between individuals of the identical intercourse. The organizers promise to welcome “all” guests with out discrimination.

5. 2021, environmental influence

“Zero carbon influence” towards “ecological aberration”, the analyzes of the organizers and opponents differ on the environmental footprint of the World Cup. Based on a report revealed by Fifa in June 2021, greater than 3.6 million tonnes of CO2 can be emitted because of the World Cup, in comparison with 2.1 million tonnes throughout the earlier version in Russia in 2018.

However this evaluation is incomplete, judges the NGO Carbon Market Watch, which estimates that the carbon footprint of the development of stadiums might have been underestimated by an element of eight: it might be essential to depend 1.6 million tonnes of CO2 and no 0.2 million. On the aspect of the organizers, it’s argued that the proximity of the eight stadiums, inside a radius of 75 km, will cut back air site visitors in favor of the metro and electrical buses.

However voices evoke the danger of a rise in emissions because of the many air shuttles supposed for the transport of supporters from neighboring nations to restrict the stress on the resort supply in Qatar. The air con of stadiums, typically held up as a logo of power and environmental waste, doesn’t weigh very closely within the stability sheet. However for French Prime Minister Elisabeth Borne, this open-air air con “just isn’t sign” by way of power sobriety.

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